Bohemia 1800-1850

Dec. 1799-Jan. 1800: On behalf of the variance between Austria and Russia, the Russian army moved from Switzerland into Bohemia to relax there. The first Russian corps stayed in Central Bohemia, the second Russian corps stayed in Western Bohemia, the third Russian corps stayed in Southern Bohemia.

end of Jan. 1800-end of March 1800: First and second Russian corps were moving back to Russia through Praha-Cesky Brod-Kolin-Caslav-Chrudim-Vysoke Myto-Litomysl-Svitavy-Moravska Trebova-Mohelnice-Unicov-Sternberk-Moravsky Beroun-Opava-Ostrava-Tesin. The third Russian corps was moving through Ceske Budejovice-Jindrichuv Hradec-Jarosov nad Nezarkou-Zirovnice-Pocatky-Batelov-Jihlava-Velke Mezirici-Velka Bites-Brno-Vyskov-Olomouc-Hranice-Novy Jicin-Frydek-Tesin.

cca 1800-1820: Potatoes became a popular part of nourishment, especially in lower social classes. Growing of potatoes broke the classic agricultural system of using fields in Bohemia.

cca 1800-1830: Beginning of the industrial revolution in Bohemia. Machines were used mainly in the textile industry.

Feb. 9, 1801: Peace treatment concluded between Austria and France in Luneville. Austria confirmed French land gains in Germany and Italy.

1801: First beet-sugar refinery founded by Rudolf the Earl of Wrbno in Horovice. Other beet-sugar refineries were later founded in Zaky near Caslav (1810), Caslav (1811), Libechov near Melnik (1811), Chlumec near Usti nad Labem (1811).

May 4, 1802: Abolishion of the lifelong military service.

1803: Cylinder tissue printing was applied in the print works in Varnsdorf (owned by the Stoll brothers)

1803-1807: First steam engine constructed by Frantisek Josef Gerstner. It was used for students at the Prague polytechnic school untill 1834.

April 1804: First wool spinning-machine applied in the cloth factory in Brno. It was done thanks to plans copied illegaly in England.

Aug. 11, 1804: Austrian Emperor Frantisek II began to use the title the Inheritable Austrian Emperor Frantisek I.

Aug. 9, 1805: Austria joined the third alliance against France.

Aug. 11, 1805: Compulsory school attendance applied for the children in the age of 6-12 years, but it was not followed regulary.

end of Sept. -Nov. 1805: Prussian army went through Silesia and Moravia into the Upper Austria, through Tesin-Frydek-Novy Jicin-Lipnik nad Becvou-Olsany u Prostejova-Vyskov-Brno-Pohorelice-Lechovice-Jetzelsdorf. Amidst of November they were compelled to retrieve back to Moravia.

Nov. 10-13, 1805: French corps, about 7000 soldiers, got to the area of Klatovy. Other French corps penetrated to Tabor through southern Bohemia.

Nov. 17, 1805: French army moved to southern Moravia and occupied Brno (Nov. 19). French army stayed in southern Moravia untill January 1806.

Dec. 2, 1805: Battle near Slavkov. Austrian and Russian armies (85 000 soldiers) were defeated by the French army (73 000 soldiers).

Dec. 6, 1805: Cease-fire concluded between Austria and France in Slavkov.

Dec. 26, 1805: Peace treaty between Austria and France in Bratislava. Austria lost Tirol and Vorarlberg (handed over to Bavaria), Venice in Italy and Dalmatia. As compensation Austria got Salzburg.

Aug. 6, 1806: Abolishion of the Saint Roman Empire of the German Nation.

Dec. 31, 1807: Frantisek Josef Gerstner offered to construct horse railroad from Ceske Budejovice to Linec. It was built in the years 1824-1832.

May 12, 1808: Landarmy founded to defend the country, as military reserve (men in age 18-45 years).

April 10, 1809: Austria began fights against France by penetration into Bavaria.

July 1809: French army occupied southern Moravia untill November 1809.

Oct. 14, 1809: Peace treaty in Vienna between Austria and France. Austria lost Salzburg, area around Inn, part of Carinthia, part of Croatia, western Galicia, etc..

1809: Historian and philologist Josef Dobrovsky published a book which became the basis for the modern Czech grammar.

March 15, 1811: State bankruptcy as the consequence of the long lasting war. The currency decreased to 1/5 of the former value.

June 1, 1811: General Civic Code of Laws valid for all Estates. It concerned personal law, estate law, common articles of personal and estate law. Validity from Jan. 1, 1812.

March 14, 1812: Treaty of alliance between Austria and France against Russia.

Jan. 28-30, 1813: Cease-fire between Austria and Russia. After the failed march of French army into Russia, Austria stopped to support Napoleon.

June 1813: Dealing about peace treaty in Opocno and Dresden (Germany).

July 12-Aug. 10, 1813: Prague Peace Congress finished without any success.

Aug. 11, 1813: Austria declared war on France. Russian and Prussian armies moved from Silesia to Bohemia.

Aug. 17-31, 1813: French army penetrated into northern Bohemia.

Aug. 29-30, 1813: Battle near Prestanov and Chlumec where French army was defeated.

Sept. 17-19, 1813: Battle near Varvazov where French army was defeated and retrieved back to Dresden in Germany.

Oct. 16-19, 1813: Battle near Leipzig in Germany where French army was defeated (about 40 000 French soldiers killed).

May 1, 1814: Silesian Museum founded in Opava.

May 30, 1814: Peace treaty in Paris. The frontiers of France were restored to the state valid before Jan. 1, 1792.

Sept. 1814-June 1815: Congress in Vienna. Austria obtained back lost areas.

April-June, 1815: Russian army went through Bohemia against France (about 114 500 soldiers). They returned through Bohemia between Oct.-Dec. 1815.

Nov. 20, 1815: Second peace treaty in Paris after definitive defeat of Napoleon.

July 29, 1817: Moravian Museum founded in Brno.

Dec. 23, 1817: Decree on the new tax system, called "Stabilni katastr". Validy in Bohemia from 1853, in Moravia from 1851.

Jan. 1, 1818: Czech Museum founded in Praha.

Feb. 8, 1819: Provisional Land Tax, valid from Nov. 1, 1820. For the land tax measurement the previous system from 1785-1789 was combined with the "Stabilni katastr".

1824-1827: The Veverka cousins constructed an improved plough.

Feb. 12, 1825: "Sporitelna ceska" (savings-bank) was founded in Praha.

1825-1836: Horse railroad constructed between Praha and Lany.

February 1826: Josef Ressel perfomed successfully his screw-propeller.

March 11, 1827: Restoration of the University in Olomouc.

cca 1830-1848: Second part of the industrial revolution in Bohemia, spreading into the food industry (sugar industry) and heavy industry (ferrous metallurgy). Instead wood the new fuel was applied, mainly hard and soft coal.

Sept. 1831-Oct.1832: Cholera epidemic. In September 1831 it hit Moravia and Silesia, in October it spread into eastern Bohemia and other parts of the country.

1833: First paper machine factory founded in Bubenec (part of Praha).

March 2, 1835-Dec. 2, 1848: Reign of Ferdinand I (b. 1793, d. 1875). In practise, for his mentally deficient indisposition the rule was in hands of group of nobile people.

1835-1839: In Praha Josef Jungmann published the Czech-German dictionary (5 volumes).

Sept. 7, 1836: Ferdinand I was crowned as the King of Bohemia in Praha. It was the last Czech coronation.

1836-1847: Ferdinand´s Northern Railroad built between Vienna and Bohumin.

1842: Burghers Brewery founded in Plzeò.

1842-1845: Northern Railroad built between Olomouc and Praha.

July 8-9, 1844: Attacks against Jews in Praha.

July 11-13, 1844: Attacks against Jews in Tábor.

end of 1844: Illegal club REPEAL founded in Praha. Its prime goal was patriotical entertainment. From about 1847 it became involved more in policy.

fall of 1846: Convulsion of manorial subjects in 13 localities near Slapy. They refused to work for the nobility. Most of them escaped into forests before the army reached them. When their leader arrested, other returned home.

Dec. 18, 1846: State decree allowed subjects to ransom their labour duties (done for nobility).

Jan.-March 1847: Convulsion of manorial subjects against labour duties in the area of Bilovec (northern Moravia).

March 1847: Convulsion of manorial subjects against labour duties in the area of Senov (northern Moravia).

spring 1847: Convulsion of hungry people in Moravia and Silesia.

1848-1849: National revolutionary movements proceeding in Europe, it influenced also Bohemia.

1848-1916: Reign of Frantisek Josef I.

Sept. 7, 1848: Serfdom and old duties compelling peasants to work on their lords´ fields were abolished.

June 27, 1849: Additional executive decree concerning the abolished old duties of peasants, allowed for limited compensation.

Jan. 17, 1850: Temporary Code of Criminal Procedure. It was based on modern criminal procedure which was to be public and verbal, supported by independent judges.

March 26, 1850: Commercial and trade chambers founded in important trade and industrial cities.